The colony of New Brunswick was created in summer 1784; Sir Thomas Carleton was appointed as Lieutenant-Governor on 3 August 1784, and in 1785 a new legislative assembly was established with the first elections. Forests cover the majority of the province, and coniferous trees commonly found in northern temperate climates—such as balsam fir, red and black spruce, pine, and hemlock—constitute the principal growth. New Brunswick was one of the first provinces, along with Ontario, Québec and Nova Scotia, to join together to form the Dominion of Canada in 1867. Saint John Harbour was first entered probably in 1524 by Gomez (A Spaniard) and named Rio De La Buelta. The Battle of Fort Cumberland was the largest and most significant of these conflicts. Canada – Canada Births and Baptisms, 1661-1959, index 2. Normal annual rainfall is slightly above 30 inches (800 mm), and snowfall averages about 115 inches (2,900 mm); annual precipitation (which factors in snowmelt) amounts to about 43 inches (1,100 mm). However they were not appreciated by the pre-loyalist population in Nova Scotia. From the early 16th century, they developed contacts with the Europeans and established a trade, which made them dependent on European technologies and victims of European diseases. Leading discovery and innovation since 1785. Saint John is the largest city in New Brunswick, Canada. This caused what is known to historians as Father Le Loutre’s War, because of the contended possession which had been in issue since before 1713. Discover its history. Allaby, G.M. New Brunswick (French: Nouveau-Brunswick) is one of four Atlantic provinces on the east coast of Canada. As a result of the loss of the American colonies 30,000 to 35,000 people, who remained loyal to Britain, carne to Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. One of the provisions of the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713 was the surrender of Acadia (or Nova Scotia as it was called by the British) to Queen Anne. Following confederation, the fears of the anti-confederates were proven correct as new national policies and trade barriers were soon adopted by the central government, thus disrupting the historic trading relationship between the Maritime Provinces and New England. It lies along Caraquet Bay (an inlet of Chaleur Bay), near the mouth of the Caraquet River, 42 miles (68 km) northeast of Bathurst. There were several actions on New Brunswick soil during the American Revolutionary War: the Maugerville Rebellion (1776), the Battle of Fort Cumberland (1776), the Siege of Saint John (1777) and the Battle at Miramichi (1779). Throughout the mid 19th century, shipbuilding on the Bay of Fundy shore, on the Petitcodiac River, at Chatham on the Miramichi River, and at Bathurst in the Bay of Chaleur, became a dominant industry in New Brunswick. timeline New Brunswick. The condition of the county accounts was never made public, and it was not until a comparatively late period in the history of the province that the Grand Jury obtained legislative authority to inspect the county accounts,” and by 1877 an act providing for compulsory municipal incorporation was put in force. History. Nevertheless, unemployment remained high throughout the province, and the Great Depression brought another setback. Lighthouse at Cape Enrage on the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Can. Read "History of New Brunswick" by Peter Fisher available from Rakuten Kobo. As a result, the climate tends to be more continental in character than maritime. The Cunard family began to flourish here at that time. Grammar schools at the parish level followed in 1805 and again in 1816. The new colony was almost called New Ireland after a failed attempt to establish a colony of that name in Maine during the war. Local government at a rural level was accomplished through a county and parish structure, and the power to tax for the purpose of primary education was first granted by the province to the parishes in 1802. While New Brunswick's history of slavery may not have been as widespread as in the United States and the Caribbean, it was real enough for the individuals who lived through it. Northern New Brunswick is dominated by the Appalachian Mountains within the Eastern Canadian forests ecoregion, with the northwestern part of the province consisting of the remote and rugged Miramichi Highlands as well as the Chaleur Uplands and the Notre Dame Mountains, with a maximum elevation at Mount Carleton of 817 m (2,680 ft). New Brunswick’s Acadians remain Canada’s largest and strongest French speaking community outside of Québec. In fact, Governor Douglas saw a silver lining in the great 1825 Miramichi Fire; he is recorded to have declared that the fire had positive aspects, in that it cleared the forest so that residents might dedicate themselves to farming, instead of relying on the sale of timber in order to purchase imported foodstuffs. New Denmark, New Brunswick, the Oldest Danish Community in Canada Canadian Culture , New Brunswick , Settler History / May 27, 2016 by Alan McNairn / 41 Comments Canada is a country with a rich history of waves of immigrants from European countries. To the west lies the U.S. state of Maine. Explore legends, lore and family roots in New Brunswick. If you have an Canadian web page and would like to be included, please Click. Both Saint John and the Miramichi region remain largely Irish today. Our retirement project is exploring New Brunswick’s history and beauty and sharing it through this site and on social media. The “Aroostook War” was bloodless (but politically very tense), and the boundary was subsequently settled by the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842. New Brunswick has experienced immigration on a smaller scale from all over the world, and today boasts a varied and increasingly multicultural population. Programs and services The Alzheimer Society of New Brunswick provides quality programs and services free of charge to individuals living with dementia, their families and their care providers. There are many reasons to move to New Brunswick. History of Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada Journey back in time to Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada Visit Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. Joined to Nova Scotia by the narrow Chignecto Isthmus and separated from Prince Edward Island by the Northumberland Strait, New Brunswick forms the land bridge … New Brunswick - History and Culture. The majority of soils are acidic and low in nutrients. Forested hills rising behind a small farm near Waterford, N.B. This post has already been read 4273 times! During the winter of 1838–39, the situation quickly deteriorated, with both Maine and New Brunswick calling out their respective militias. After the Seven Years’ War, most of present-day New Brunswick (and parts of Maine) were confirmed as part of the colony of Nova Scotia and designated as Sunbury County. The total land and water area of the province is 72,908 km2 (28,150 sq mi), over 80 percent of which is forested. New Brunswick changed from more than two-thirds rural before 1941 to predominantly urban by 1971. Hannay deals with a lengthy list of topics. Agricultural lands are found mostly in the upper Saint John River valley, with lesser amounts of farmland in the southeast of the province, especially in the Kennebecasis and Petitcodiac river valleys. The Acadians of the recently captured Beaubassin and Petitcodiac regions were included in the expulsion order. Saint John is a seaport city of the Atlantic Ocean located on the Bay of Fundy in the province of New Brunswick, Canada.Saint John is the oldest incorporated city in Canada, established by royal charter on May 18, 1785, during the reign of King George III. Aboriginal Settlement The first settlers of New Brunswick were the Mi’kmaq, whose communities spread from Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island to the south coast of the Gaspé Peninsula, the Maliseet along the Saint John River valley and Passamaquoddy Bay along the St Croix River. New Brunswick differs from the other Maritime provinces physiographically, climatologically, and ethnoculturally. During the French and Indian War (1754–63), the British completed their displacement of the Acadians over all of present-day New Brunswick because they took up arms against them, when they had been requested repeatedly for decades not to do so. Civil liberties group prepared to sue New Brunswick over access to abortion Mendelsohn Aviv said that would pave the way for the province having to fund the service in any clinic that offers it. Choose from 75+ programs at the University of New Brunswick's two campuses. The Micmac & Malecite peoples were followed by the Acadians, New England Planters, the Loyalists, the Irish and the Scots. The majority of the population is English-speaking of Anglo and Celtic heritage, but there is also a large Francophone minority (33%), chiefly of Acadian origin. The forests support substantial herds of white-tailed deer, moose, and small animals such as porcupines and raccoons. Frame beautiful shots of the lighthouse and twin bridges as the ocean swirls in the background. New Brunswick Daily Life Records. Posts. A major French fortification, the Fortress of Louisbourg, was also built on Île Royale (now Cape Breton Island) after Queen Anne’s War, but the function of this fort was mostly to defend the approaches to the colony of Canada, not the lost province of Acadia. The 1969 Official Languages Act made French an official language. Peter Thomas, Lost Land of Moses: The Age of Discovery on New Brunswick's Salmon Rivers. Events. Email or Phone: Password: Forgot account? About 1750, to protect his interests in New France, Louis XV caused three forts (Fort Beauséjour, Fort Menagoueche and Fort Gaspareaux) to be built along the Isthmus of Chignecto. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Both Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island are either surrounded by, or are almost completely surrounded by water. Learn about the people who lived there through stories, old newspaper articles, pictures, postcards and genealogy. 1. The exhibition focused on New Brunswick's Central Business District. The New Brunswick and Nova Scotia Land Company, a means of transferring land held by the Crown to individual owners, was chartered in New Brunswick in 1831. Bouctouche’s Le Pays de la Sagouine and the Kings Landing Historical Settlement in Prince William are, respectively, New Brunswick’s two most fascinating living museums to Acadian and Loyalist cultures. In the Canada 2016 Census, Statistics Canada estimated the provincial population to have been 747,101, down very slightly from 751,171 in 2011, on an area of almost 73,000 km2. The goal of the Portal is to create a comprehensive online database of New Brunswick’s Scottish settlers. Its capital is Fredericton. Here you'll find record collections, history, and genealogy resources to help you trace your New Brunswick ancestors. Your email address will not be published. Manufacturing gained strength with the construction of textile mills such as the St. Croix Cotton Mill; and in the crucial forestry sector, the sawmills that had dotted inland sections of the province gave way to larger pulp and paper mills. F. Fellows' Researching Your Ancestors in New Brunswick pages 128–144 and Genealogist's Handbook for Atlantic Canada Research edited by Terrence M. Punch, pages 7–12. The English-speaking majority consists largely of the descendants of Scottish, Irish, and English settlers of the 18th and 19th centuries, along with those descended from loyalists who fled the American Revolution. As part of Canada, New Brunswick has experienced immigration on a smaller scale from all over the world, and today boasts a varied and increasingly multicultural population. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? *New Brunswick, Death Certificates, 1920-1934 Images. ... 21 Things to do in Fredericton New Brunswick Canada | Attractions Travel Guide - Duration: 10:43. Oceanic effects therefore tend to define their climate, economy, and culture. The major river systems of the province include the St. Croix River, Saint John River, Kennebecasis River, Petitcodiac River, Magaguadavic River, Miramichi River, Nepisiguit River, and the Restigouche River. The next French contact was in 1604, when a party led by Pierre du Gua de Monts and Samuel de Champlain set up camp for the winter on St. Croix Island, between present-day New Brunswick and Maine. Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada 2014. All Rights Reserved. The French-speaking minority, which has grown to about one-third of the population, consists of the descendants of 17th-century Acadian settlers augmented by French Canadians from Quebec, and it is concentrated in the northern and eastern counties. Top New Brunswick Landmarks: See reviews and photos of sights to see in New Brunswick, Canada on Tripadvisor. While New Brunswick has contributed significantly to the national life of Canada, it is one of the smaller provinces and has always occupied a lesser role in the national economy. As Colonel Thomas Dundas wrote from Saint John, “They [the loyalists] have experienced every possible injury from the old inhabitants of Nova Scotia.” Therefore, 55 prominent merchants and professionals petitioned for 5,000-acre (20 km2) grants each. I believe that the NB senate was abolished in 1902. The Charlottetown Conference of 1864, which ultimately led to the confederation movement, originally had been intended to discuss only a Maritime Union, but concerns over the American Civil War as well as Fenian activity along the border led to an interest in expanding … This is a history of Forest Protection Limited’s association with some 88 TBM Avenger aircraft used in the spruce budworm aerial spray program, primarily in the province of New Brunswick, Canada. Updates? New Brunswick – Ready reference book of New Brunswick and year book of the province Carleton County – A history of the schools of Carleton County [New Brunswick] Northumberland – School returns, 1830-1852 Biography. National Historic Sites of New Brunswick. New Brunswick is one of three provinces collectively known as the "Maritimes." New Brunswick, Canada Obituaries and Death Notices Collection. Two influential families, the Irvings and the McCains, emerged from the Depression to begin to modernise and vertically integrate the provincial economy—especially in the vital forestry, food processing, and energy sectors. History of Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada Journey back in time to Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada Visit Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. Winslow pressed for the creation of a “Loyalist colony” – an asylum that could become “the envy of the American states”. Additional immigration to New Brunswick in the early part of the 19th century was from Scotland; western England; and Waterford, Ireland, often after first having come through (or having lived in) Newfoundland. 1534-07-07 European colonization of the Americas: first known exchange between Europeans and natives of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, in New Brunswick 1783-05-18 First United Empire Loyalists reach Parrtown, Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada after leaving the United States 1825-10-07 Miramichi Fire - forest fire disaster in New Brunswick As the 20th century dawned, the province’s economy again began to expand. The whole maritime region (and parts of Maine) was at that time claimed by France and was designated as the colony of Acadia. In addition to employment opportunities across a variety of sectors or vibrant entrepreneurial landscape; people are choosing New Brunswick to enjoy a more relaxed, healthy, and affordable lifestyle. Required fields are marked *. The ancestors of the majority of the Blacks living in New Brunswick came from the United States and the West Indies. The provincial flag features a ship superimposed on a yellow background with a yellow lion passant guardant on red pennon above it. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. The then-colony was named in 1784 to honour the reigning British monarch, George III, who was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg (“Hanover”) in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. New Brunswick is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located on the east coast of Canada.. Thirteen-year-old William Cumming tells the story of the voyage across the Atlantic and up the St. John River to Upper Kintore here. Author of. The southeast corner of the province is connected to the Nova Scotia peninsula by the narrow Isthmus of Chignecto. History of New Brunswick is the definitive book on the early history and settlement of the Canadian province of New Brunswick up to 1909. The fall, with alternating cold nights and sunny warm days, is particularly spectacular, as the blazing colours of deciduous foliage contrast with the solid dark greens of conifers. Over the next 150 years, a number of other French settlements and seigneuries were founded in the area occupied by present-day New Brunswick, including along the Saint John River, the upper Bay of Fundy region, in the Tantramar Marshes at Beaubassin, and finally at St. Pierre (site of present-day Bathurst). Descendants of the province’s first inhabitants, the Indians (First Nations), remain in small numbers on federally administered reserves (reservations) along the east coast or in the St. John valley, or they have integrated into neighbouring communities. New Brunswick – New Brunswick, Provincial Returns of Births and Late Registr… or. Area 28,150 square miles (72,908 square km). The eastern part of the province is drained by the Restigouche River in the north, the many branches of the Miramichi in the north-central area, and the shorter Petitcodiac in the southeast. Visit sandstone sea caves carved out by the powerful waves. Finally the Caledonia Highlands and St. Croix Highlands extend along the Bay of Fundy coast reaching elevations of more than 400 m (1,312 ft). Home. In January the mean daily temperature is 14 °F (−10 °C), and in July it is 67 °F (19 °C). The Acadians in northern New Brunswick had long been geographically and linguistically isolated from the more numerous English speakers, who lived in the south of the province. Welcome to our New Brunswick family history research page. Culture. Pop. It was one of the four original provinces making up the national confederation in 1867. This interest in an expanded union arose from the Province of Canada (formerly Upper and Lower Canada, later Ontario and Quebec), and a request was made by the Canadian political leaders to the organizers of the Maritime conference to have the meeting agenda altered. Rolls ~ History ~ Treaties ~ Census ~ Books. Even though the bulk of the Loyalist population was located in Parrtown (Saint John), the decision was made by the colonial authorities to place the new colonial capital at St. Anne’s Point (Fredericton), about 150 km up the Saint John River as it was felt that by placing the capital inland, it would be less vulnerable to American attack. Magnetic Hill in … On the other hand, New Brunswick, although having a significant seacoast, is sheltered from the Atlantic Ocean proper and has a large interior that is removed from oceanic influences. In his History of New Brunswick, Hannay observes that “The system of county government was as bad as possible, because the magistrates were not responsible to any person. The New Brunswick Lowlands form the eastern and central portions of the province and are part of the Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests ecoregion. The Atlantic province of Canada known as New Brunswick is a place of dramatic scenery, amazing outdoor recreation, and plenty of cultural events to keep any traveler entertained. (2016) 747,101; (2019 est.) The eastern boundary is formed by the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and Northumberland Strait. Wild blueberries and cranberries are found commonly on thin soils, especially in southwestern areas. New Brunswick – New Brunswick Late Registration of Births, 1810-1899, index & images 4. The history of New Brunswick can be viewed according to four periods: pre-European contact, French colonization, British colonization and finally, New Brunswick … During the research, the NB Scottish History advisory committee discovered many untold stories from different families and individuals who came to New Brunswick … Founded about 1760 by shipwrecked French seamen, it is one of the province’s SIGNIFICANT DATES IN HISTORY 1534 - Jacques Cartier explores the coast of New Brunswick, sailing into and naming the Bay of Chaleur. Additionally, a number of lake-size arms branch off the lower St. John on its eastern side, the largest of which is Grand Lake, about 60 miles (100 km) inland. The south of the province is bounded by the Bay of Fundy coast, (which with a rise of 16 m (52 ft), has amongst the highest tides in the world). Follow us on social media. See more of National Historic Sites of New Brunswick on Facebook. Learn about the people who lived there through stories, old newspaper articles, pictures, postcards and genealogy. The settlement patterns and the economy of New Brunswick are based more on the province’s river systems than its seacoasts. Governor Charles Lawrence of Nova Scotia used the discovery of Acadians helping in the defence of the fort to order the expulsion of the Acadian population from Nova Scotia. The high tides of the Bay of Fundy reverse the rapids at the river’s mouth at the city of Saint John and raise the level of the lower river for up to 95 miles (150 km) inland. When hearing constitutional cases, Courts must follow both These censuses are available at the National Archives of Canada, the Family History Library, and local Family History Centers. The Mi’kmaq had long followed a pattern of s… Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). First Link ® First Link® connects New Brunswick families living with Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia with services and supports as early as possible in their journey. February is Black History Month. History of Bathurst, New Brunswick, Canada Journey back in time to Bathurst, New Brunswick, Canada Visit Bathurst, New Brunswick, Canada. Students Kathleen Farquhar and I, Spencer Thompson, from St Thomas University, and Ian Forbes from McGill will be hard at work all summer helping to make the Portal a reality. Temperatures at Fredericton range from an extreme low of −35 °F (−37 °C) to an extreme high of 99 °F (37 °C). One of the purposes of this project is to explore that history and document as much of it as we can. A Video on the History of New Brunswick and how it got this far. When Samuel de Champlain and other European explorers began to explore the area that would become New Brunswick in the early 1600's, they were met by the native Maliseet and Mi'kmaq tribes who had inhabited the area and lived along the rivers and coasts. He embarked on the ambitious Equal Opportunity Plan, in which education, rural road maintenance, and health care fell under the sole jurisdiction of a provincial government that insisted on equal coverage throughout the province. Although the Maritime leaders were swayed by the arguments of the Canadians, many ordinary residents of the Maritimes wanted no part of this larger confederation for fear that their interests and concerns would be ignored in a wider national union. Although smaller, the Bouctouche River, Richibucto River and Kouchibouguac River are also important. Together with Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, it forms the regional grouping known as the Maritime Provinces. New Brunswick is the province that offers opportunity to have a great career and quality of life. Search Canada New Brunswick New Brunswick . 776,827. LOCAL HISTORY. The Musée Acadien de Université de Moncton owns a collection of over 30,000 objects related to the Acadians of the Maritime Provinces. The St. Croix River follows the southwestern boundary. The land rises abruptly and in some places spectacularly out of the Bay of Fundy in the south and undulates northward in a series of rolling hills and rocky outcroppings. New Brunswick Provincial Nominee Program. The latter two bodies of water are separated by the narrow neck of the Chignecto Isthmus, which joins New Brunswick to Nova Scotia, to the southeast. Its beautiful forests, rivers, lakes, and seashore—attractions for tourists, hunters, and sport fishermen—have remained relatively unspoiled. The US state of Maine forms the western boundary. 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